Summary of Chapter 8, The Third Missionary Journey – Ephesus
The World of Saint Paul by Joseph M. Callewaert
In this chapter Callewaert writes about Paul’s third missionary journey which was to the city of Ephesus. He begins by describing the type of city Ephesus was and gives the reader an overview of the people who lived there, before and during Paul’s visit. From Callewaert’s description, we see that Ephesus was one of the most important cities in the region and became “the most opulent and lavish city in Asia.”
The people in Ephesus were accustomed to lives of vice, so much so, that the virtuous philosopher, Hermodorus, was banished from the city. Of note is the Ephesians’ worship of the pagan god, Diana, to which a beautiful temple was built. The temple’s high priest was known to incite men to do immoral and degrading debauchery through dances performed by priestesses. This is the type of opulent and decadent city to which Paul traveled in AD 54 to preach the good news.
We read that in Ephesus Paul found only a few believers whom he baptized in the name of Jesus. He cured the sick and drove out evil spirits and during this time the people, both Jews and Greeks began to believe in Jesus and convert.
Callewaert describes significant events of Paul’s journey in this chapter. He relates that Paul’s stay in Ephesus brought major trouble when a silversmith incited a riot against him because he lost business making pagan items. During his stay in Ephesus Paul received a letter from Timothy regarding the bad state of affairs of the church in Corinth. To handle the problems Paul assessed the situation and decided to send Titus with two letters: one that addressed the immoralities and the quarreling that crept into the Corinthian community and answered the questions they had about marriage and pagan cults and the second letter which clarifies the relations between Judaism and Christianity and lays the blame for Corinth’s problems on agitators, most likely Jews from outside the community. He also tells of his own suffering, almost to death, for the cause of Christ. We see how the church in the first century was connected and unified when Callewaert writes that despite all that is going on, Paul finds time to organize a collection for the church in Jerusalem.
This chapter is interesting and informs the inspired reader of the city of Ephesus, it’s citizens, and a number of obstacles Paul had to overcome. Those who are called to evangelize can benefit from reading Callewaert’s depiction of the adversity and difficulties Paul encountered to in order to preach the good news and spread the Word of God.
Paul entered Athens in 50 AD and spent a few weeks bring the message of Christ to the people. As a child Paul studied the classics and was extremely familiar with the Greek language and culture. Therefore, it must have been difficult to enter the pagan land with all its statues and art which were dedicated to various ‘gods’. In spite of this, Paul traveled through the city and taught about the resurrection of Jesus.
The irony in the chapter is that Paul was approached by the stoics because they had heard he was preaching about “strange gods’. Preaching about ‘other gods’ than the gods of the Greeks is what led to the condemnation of Protagoras, Socrates and others. Paul was led up the 16 steps of the Aeropagus to face a tribunal because of his preaching.
He addressed them as had many other philosophers – “Men of Athens”. However, Paul was quite ingenious in his defense. He appealed to their sense of “religion” by noting that on his journey through the city he noticed that they had an altar dedicated to an “unknown god”. It was this opportunity that he seized to continue his preaching about God. The Athenians, for all their intellect, could not grasp what Paul was teaching and ultimately rejected him. All was not lost, however, as the Church took root upon the conversion of Dionysius, Demaris and others with them.
Paul only spent a short time in Athens before moving on to Corinth, Ephesus, Caesarea Maritima, Jerusalem and Antioch. Each place he preached in the Synagogues.
I recommend this chapter, especially the first half, because it offers a contrast of the pagan world of Athens to the various Church’s that Paul was establishing throughout his missionary journey. The key point that Callewaert makes is that the Athenians, for all their wisdom, become fools for rejecting God and embracing Nero
This chapter was easy to read. There were times where it was easy to imagine yourself there in the scene with Paul as details are being described. The author did an excellent job of synergizing the information and putting it together into what seem to be a seamless story about a part of Paul’s life. In Paul’s travels which we see in the Acts becomes alive with information added and explanations why those locations were significant to people of that time and included cultural, mythology, history, science and sprinkled us with information about situations that happened in that location in a previous time or a future time. Map of the travels of Paul helped me picture the scenes along with details given by Callewaert
At the same time, this book was written to make Paul accessible to Catholics and Christians who do not really know who Paul is. A lot of assumptions were made about readers and that they would know who people named in this book. “Famous Theodore was bishop for 36 years” was one of few distracting tidbits that had me as reader, go how is this relevant to this chapter? It is obvious that Callewaert wanted to give as much information he could in a single book which made it hard to follow the timelines about a location Paul and Silas was and jumped from one point to time to another point such as this location will be the spot of a battle in 273 and also was a location of a battle in 333 B.C. can make one ‘s head spin trying to remember what is going on with Paul.
The ability to weave various stories from few different books of bible into Paul’s life was impressive whenever it was from Acts, 2 Tim, or Revelations. Chapter 6 begins with Acts 15:36 where Paul and Barnabas decide to part ways and go separately. This scene seems to play out more vividly in the book like a soap opera due to the fact that it was made explicit that Barnabas was never mentioned again in the New Testament and that Tradition tells us he is buried in Salamis.
This chapter also gave us insights into how Paul used prayer. It began with wanting to visit brethren to see how they were doing. When Paul learned about Timothy, he did not want to offend other believers so Timothy was circumcised then Paul laid his hands on him and ordained Timothy. Both men preached together and telling others to pray for their enemies. They kept Sabbath and used prayer buildings. They would sometimes pray near flowing waters because of Jewish ritual purifications when synagogues were not available. They sang hymns to God when they were in prison. When traveling by boat, Callewaert is certain that Paul used that time for prayer and contemplation.
As we read this chapter, we cannot forget that we are Paul in today’s world as indicated in the story with girl who could predict the future and kept following Paul and telling others that he works for Most High God. Paul then cast out the evil spirit out of her which led to the people in town to arrest Paul. While in jail, Paul kept his faith and when presented with an opportunity to escape he still saved the life of someone who was keeping him in jail and baptized this person as well.
This was a well written chapter that made the scenes visible and made a lot of assumptions about the reader’s knowledge such as understanding church history tidbits and idioms.
What a momentous event in the history of the Church. We are all called to bring the Gospel to the ends of the earth and here we see Paul, Barnabas, and John-Mark sailing from Antioch to put that call into action. They start by visiting Cyprus with its colorful mix of shrines and temples…mostly not “G”rated. In Cyprus, a roman seeking more than his religion offered him, invites them to his home. When a theosophist magician opposes the meeting, Paul calls on the hand of the Lord and blinds him. The Roman gets the picture and quickly embraces the faith. Christianity soon replaces the cult of Venus in Cyprus. John-Mark leaves them at this point and Paul and Barnabas press on to Antioch of Pisidia. Here they are welcomed into synagogues in their capacities as Rabbi and Levite as guests of honor. After the religious service, they are asked if they have anything to say. Paul seizes the moment and offers the first sermon that we have by him on record. The people hear what Paul has to say with some interest… asking him to come back and speak again the following week. The Jews soon come to their senses and “revile” Paul. At this, Paul chastises them for rejecting the word of God, which had to be spoken to them first. Since the Jews don’t want to hear it, they will turn to the gentiles. And so we have a historic moment… the beginning of the systematic proclamation of Christianity to the Gentiles. Paul and Barnabas shake the dust from their sandals and go to Iconium where they are well received by Jews and Greeks. Eventually they wear out their welcome and leave before the Jews and pagans stone them. Their work would bear fruit as Iconium would serve for many centuries as an important center for Christianity. In Lystra, their next stop, Paul heals a paralytic and the people assume Barnabas is Zeus and Paul is Hermes. The priest of Zeus hears that Zeus is in town and brings bulls to sacrifice to him. Paul and Barnabas tear their garments and insist they are men and not Gods. As if on cue….Jews from cities they had previously visited arrive and persuade the people to stone them. Paul is actually stoned this time and left for dead. When people come to pay last respects, he miraculously stands up, goes back to the city, and the journey continues. Following a final and productive stop in Derbe, they retrace their route back to Antioch where they rest after their perilous 680 mile journey.
Paul and Barnabas are soon called to Jerusalem to share in the debate about whether of not gentiles need to follow the Law of Moses. They share stories of their journey with those gathered in what would be the first council of the Christian Church. Their testimony helps the early Church discern a solution to their first great crisis. The chapter ends with an affirming story of how Peter and Paul deal with a follow-on incident when Peter visited Antioch. The issue of circumcision comes up and Peter wavers in his actions until Paul gives him some aggressive counseling on the matter. The author affirms that the apostles, although they have their arguments (some heated) demonstrate great “spiritual solidarity” in what they say and do.
I have never read an account of the first missionary journey like this and that is a shame. I actually think too few Catholics spend enough time understanding what the apostles did for us in the early church. This was an incredible journey, filled with miracles and near death experiences. These were not Gods, but men like us. As for the text, I think the author offers too much historical detail to make this suitable for a bible study or a casual read. His detailed accounts of history, while interesting, distract from the story of the mission. Historical heavy handedness aside, the elements related to Paul and Barnabas and the relevant regional facts do give a comprehensive and moving account of this mission that changed the world forever.
Metanoia, or the Conversion of Saul, Chapter 4, of Joseph Callewaert’s The World of Saint Paul is a before and after account of St. Paul. We start the chapter with Saul (Paul), a rabbi, persecuting Christians, and after an amazing transformation following an encounter with the Lord, we end with Paul becoming one of the first Christian missionaries to the Gentiles. According to Callewaert, this encounter with Jesus qualifies Paul as a legitimate disciple. However, the other disciples were a little leery of Paul’s conversion at first. Not that I really thought too much about it before, but I probably would have also questioned Paul’s motives if he suddenly wanted to join the ranks of Jesus’s disciples, especially considering his checkered past.
For those of you in the diaconate program, it may be a little troubling to know that Paul was a part of the group that consented to the murder of Stephen, the first martyr. After Stephen’s martyrdom, Paul was looking to overtake other Christian territories and was on his way from Jerusalem to Damascus when his conversion took place. It happened just outside of Damascus in a village named Kawbab. Following the appearance of the Lord, Paul continued into Damascus where he met Ananias who cured him from his temporary blindness and baptized him. Then, Paul began to proclaim Jesus as the Son of God and testify to His resurrection. With his powers of persuasion, Paul angered the Jews enough for them to want to kill him. Paul then set out for Jerusalem, where Barnabas brought him to the disciples. As he continued to preach in the name of the Lord and speak out against the Hellenists, he was again being sought to be killed, so was sent off to Tarsus, his home town. With the number of conversions to Christianity, Barnabas sought Paul to bring him to Antioch of Syria, which was referred to as the second Rome. It was a Roman bastion of Hellenistic culture and pleasure, sin city, which was then converted by Barnabas and Paul to a Christian stronghold. Christianity remained strong from the mid 40’s to the mid 300’s, becoming the center of a school of theology and claiming Ignatius, John Chrysostom, and Saint Augustine as its residents.
This is a very interesting historical account of Paul’s conversion, with an interesting biblical emphasis on the road where the conversion took place as well as a focus on the conversion of Antioch of Syria. It lacks the spirituality around a conversion and rather focuses more on the facts. As Callewaert consistently reminds us of Paul’s strong ties to Judaism, it makes his conversion that more amazing. It is a wonderful, historical insight surrounding the time of Paul’s conversion and the ability he was given to convert others to Christianity. I would recommend this chapter to anyone who is looking for a historical account of Paul’s conversion rooted in scripture.
In The World of St Paul Chapter Three “A Rabbinical Education” Calleawaert provides a vivid description of Saul’s Bar Mitzvah and his journey to Jerusalem where he received his rabbinical formation.
At thirteen Saul became a “Son of the Law” and was declared worthy to wear the phylacteries two small leather boxes containing scripture passages. One fastened to his head and the other his left arm which symbolized his total adherence to the law. Saul continued to work as a tent maker and study the law. At age fourteen due to his maturity and intelligence he was sent to study in Jerusalem. He joined a caravan south into the land of his ancestors.
Here Callewaert describes a wonderful description of Old Testament history describing various landmarks and the events that occurred there. He discussed how perilous the journey could be due to thieves and robbers. One stretch of the journey was dubbed “The Bloody Path”.
Upon entering Jerusalem there is description of the temple and the religious practices it. Noteworthy was the Wall of Gentiles that threatened death to any Gentile who pass through it to the sacred area of the temple. No doubt this would influence Paul for the future.
After he made his paschal sacrifice Saul entered a Rabbinical school. There were two schools belonging to the sect of Phariessees: Shammai and Hillel. Shammai offered a broader interpretation of the law. Hillel offered a strict adherence to the law. Saul chose Hillel and study under Gamaliel who was a teacher held in high regard even by the Roman emperor Tiberius. Saul also had close association with Greek scholars and the Sophia Greek Wisdom. When his studies were complete, he return to Tauris and worked as a Tent Maker with his father.
I recommend this chapter. Callewaert is a wonderful writer who provides detailed historical context for Saul’s journey to Jerusalem and his young adulthood. This chapter is a good resource for Bachelor or Master level biblical scholars.